To fakta om Kina som du kanskje ikke visste:
- Fra 1971 til 2001 har 400 millioner mennesker blitt løftet ut av absolutt fattigdom i Kina. Fortsetter veksten, vil ytterligere 200 millioner mennesker bli løftet ut av absolutt fattigdom før 2020.
- Fra 1990 har Kinas økonomi doblet seg mer enn tre ganger. I forhold vil Norges økonomi først ha doblet seg én gang først i 2015. Da vil Kinas økonomi være 7,5 ganger større enn i 1990. (AGR 1990-2004: Kina 8,4%, Norge 2,8%, fremskrevet 2005-2015)
Hvor kommer Kinas økonomisk mirakel fra? I et foredrag hos Center for Global Development i mars i år forteller den tidligere Verdensbankøkonomen Bill Easterly en interessant historie om hvorfor de kinesiske økonomiske markedsreformene ble satt i gang.
The Chinese economic reforms actually started in a small village called Xiaogang, which I’m probably mangling the pronunciation of, when just some villagers in this village decided on their own that because they were starving under the collective farm system in the ‘70s they reached a secret agreement that they didn’t tell anyone about; that they were going to secretly assign each other property rights, individual property rights and just not tell anybody about them. And so they reached that agreement. They started farming their own plots. Food production went way up. They were no longer starving. The only problem with their scheme was that the neighboring villages noticed that they, they were no longer starving and that they were producing a lot more food – and they weren’t as skinny as they used to be. And, and the neighboring villages quickly wanted to know what’s your secret? You know, what kind of fertilizer are you using exactly? And so the secret kind of leaked out because it was too good a secret to keep secret for long. So the neighboring villages started doing it and their food production shot up, and so this kept spreading spontaneously from below. And then eventually the communist party authorities heard about it and they were kind of ready to do economic reforms anyway and move away from Maoism anyway and they decided instead of suppressing this they would back this. And this is actually – was the beginning of the Chinese economic miracle.